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Willingness to vote online in general elections in New Zealand

By age group, 2009 & 2012, % of all individuals


  1. Employment refers to the individual's employment status in the previous week.
  2. Individuals may belong to more than one ethnic group.


Anti-spyware software: programmes to remove or block spyware. Spyware is software that helps to gather information about a person or organisation without their knowledge.

Anti-virus software: programmes to detect and remove computer viruses.

Broadband: a high-speed connection to the Internet also referred to as non-analogue. It can allow for multiple services to work at the same time, eg telephone, cable TV, and Internet access. For the purposes of the Household use of ICT questionnaires, broadband use was identified by the respondent, and then the respondent was asked about the way the broadband was provided, eg via cable.

Cable: a broadband transmission technology using coaxial cable or fibre-optic TV cable lines to access the Internet.

Data card: a removable computer component containing data used in conjunction with other ICT devices to provide mobile Internet access, also known as a smart card.

Dial-up: a way of connecting a computer to the Internet using a modem and the telephone line.

DSL: digital subscriber line, a type of broadband that carries data at high speeds over traditional (copper) telephone lines. DSL allows for simultaneous voice and data transmission.

Fibre: a cable to the home specifically for broadband Internet services. This is an optical fibre connection often referred to as ‘fibre-to-the-home’.

Firewall: an integrated collection of security measures designed to prevent unauthorised electronic access to a networked security system.

Hotspot: a site that offers Internet access, typically using Wi-Fi technology. Hotspots may be found in coffee shops and various other public establishments and areas.

Information and communication technology (ICT): electronic technologies used for collecting, processing, or transmitting information, which can be in the form of voice, images, or data. Examples of ICT include computers, the Internet, and telecommunications.

Internet telephone, Skype, iTalk: services that allow you to talk in real time over the Internet in a similar fashion to a phone call, often including a video component.

Mobile phone: a portable wireless telephone that can be used at long ranges (not a cordless phone, which has a limited range). Also referred to as a cellphone, cellular phone or handphone.

Netbook: a small, low power, mobile personal computer, used primarily for email and Internet access.

Online purchase: a purchase paid for online, eg by credit card or web-based Internet transaction systems. This does not include online banking, or when the payment for a purchase is made by cash or cheque.

Patches: a piece of software designed to fix or update a computer programme and its supporting data.

Regional council areas: regional councils cover every territorial authority in New Zealand, with the exception of the Chatham Islands Territory. There are 16 regional council areas in New Zealand. To allow publication of smaller areas, these areas have been combined into 12 regions for this release.

Satellite broadband: a connection to the Internet using a satellite dish. Satellite broadband is linked to a dish network subscriber service and provides speeds similar to other broadband connections.

Sharing files via peer to peer exchanges: directly accessing other computers’ files through Internet networks and certain software programs.

Tablet: a mobile computer integrated into a flat touch-screen and primarily operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard. Tablets are larger than a mobile phone.

Web radio and web television: radio and television stations that can be accessed through the Internet, also called 'webcasting'.

Wi-Fi: a local area network that uses high frequency radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances up to approximately 100 metres.

Wireless: access to the Internet via wireless networks (other than cellular technology).

Wireless network: a computer network with no physical connection such as cables between senders and receivers, instead using high-frequency radio to transmit data.

Wireless router: a device that allows Internet access to wireless-capable devices in the home, most often laptops, tablets, and smartphones. A wireless router is also known as a wireless modem.

Urban and rural areas
All urban areas: the urban population is defined internationally as towns with 1,000 people or more for statistical purposes. There is a three-part hierarchical subdivision of urban areas.

Main urban area: very large urban areas centred on a city or major urban centre. Main urban areas have a minimum population of 30,000.

Secondary urban area: urban areas with a population between 10,000 and 29,999 and centred on larger regional centres.

Minor urban area: urbanised settlements (outside main and secondary urban areas), centred around smaller towns with a population between 1,000 and 9,999.

All rural areas: areas with a population of less than 1,000 are defined as rural for statistical purposes.

Rural centre: centres with a population between 300 and 999.

Rural: rural areas have a population of under 300.

Limitations of the data

Consistency with other periods or datasets
Information and communication technology (ICT) is a rapidly changing field. As a result, the Household Use of ICT questionnaire has changed considerably since the last survey cycle. The questionnaire is now more streamlined with a stronger focus on Internet security. The majority of the household questions have been moved into the individual section allowing for use of multiple technologies within a household to be captured. This move was also aimed at gaining the individuals’ perspective of their own circumstances, rather than that of the household. Nevertheless, in order to retain as much comparability as possible with previous years, some individual responses have also been aggregated to the household level. This is done by deriving a variable for a household if at least one individual in the household contributes to that variable. Nevertheless, some outputs will not be comparable with previous years due to question changes and new questions.

Data provided by

Stats NZ

Dataset name

Household Use of Information and Communication Technology: Additional tables 2012


How to find the data

Import & extraction details

File as imported: Household Use of Information and Communication Technology: Additional tables 2012

From the dataset Household Use of Information and Communication Technology: Additional tables 2012, this data was extracted:

  • Sheet: Table 2.8
  • Range: C11:H46
  • Provided: 180 data points

This data forms the table ICT - Individuals' willingness to vote online in local body or general elections 2009–2012.