This dataset counts a person once per warning date.
Year is the year of the warning date.
'Multiple ethnicity' information is used in this table. This means for each ethnicity a person is counted once per financial year (eg they may be counted in both European and Māori). As some people have multiple recorded ethnicities this will result in the sum of ethnicities being greater than the total number of people each year.
Most serious offence: A range of information is used to determine which charge is a person's most serious in a year. This includes information such as charge outcome, sentence type, sentence length/amount, remands in custody and bail and maximum offence penalties.
Stage-1 offence ('first strike'): a first warning is issued when a person aged 18 or over at the time of a qualifying offence, and who does not have any previous warnings, is convicted of that offence. Once the person has received a first warning, it stays on their record for good unless their conviction is overturned.
Stage-2 offence ('second strike'): a final warning is issued if that person is subsequently convicted of another qualifying offence. They receive a final warning and, if sentenced to imprisonment, will serve that sentence in full without the possibility of parole.
Stage-3 offence ('third strike'): on conviction of a third or subsequent qualifying offence the court must impose the maximum penalty for the offence, unless the court considers that would be manifestly unjust.
Changes to data collection/processing
From 29 April 2016, the Ministry of Justice sources courts data from the new Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW), rather than the justice sector data warehouse (ISIS) used over recent years. Changes in data processing may cause small differences if compared current output with similar results produced before 29 April 2016.
From the dataset Justice Statistics: "Three strikes" offences 2021, this data was extracted:
Sheet: 2c.Stage-2 demographics
Provided: 210 data points
Dataset originally released on:
September 21, 2021
About this dataset
This dataset includes information on people sentenced for serious violent offences which are subject to warnings or maximum sentences under the Sentencing Act 2002 (amended in 2010). The process covered by sections 86A - 86I of the Act is commonly known as "three strikes".
Its purpose was to (1) deny parole to certain repeat offenders and to offenders guilty of the worst murders; (2) impose maximum terms of imprisonment on persistent repeat offenders who continue to commit serious violent offences. It did this by creating a three stage system of increasing consequences for people with repeated serious violent offending. There are 40 offences types which qualify for this system ('qualifying offences'). These serious violent offences have a maximum imprisonment sentence of 7 years or more, such as murder, attempted murder, manslaughter, wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm, sexual violation, abduction, kidnapping, and aggravated robbery (a full list is included in s86A of the Sentencing Act 2002).
Method of collection/Data provider
Gender, ethnic group and age information originates from the New Zealand Police.