Interquartile range: Benchmark ratios are produced from the unit(s) that are located at the median (50th percentile), at the first quartile (25th percentile), and the third quartile (75th percentile). The range of values between quartile 1 and quartile 3 is known as the interquartile range. The interquartile range enables users who are benchmarking their business against these figures to see if the differences between their ratio and the benchmark ratios are relatively large (outside the interquartile range) or relatively small (within the interquartile range).
Gross Profit Ratio:
Gross profit divided by sales and/or services. Gross profit indicates how much profit is made after paying for the cost of goods sold (the direct costs attributable to the production of goods and supplies such as inventory and stock).
Stock Turnover Ratio:
Cost of goods sold divided by ((opening stock plus closing stock)divided by 2)). Stock turnover, also known as inventory turnover, represents the number of times stock is sold and replaced within a year. This is ROUNDED.
Salaries and Wages / Turnover Ratio:
Salaries and wages divided by (sales and/or services plus interest received plus dividends plus rental and lease payments plus other income). This ratio represents the percentage of turnover income that is spent on labour costs. It can be an indicator of whether a business is spending too much or too little of its turnover income on staffing the business.
Return on Total Assets:
Total current year taxable profit divided by total assets. This ratio tests the efficiency of investment in fixed assets and is a measure of how effectively the business has converted these assets into net income.
Return on Total Equity:
Total current year taxable profit divided by total proprietor or shareholder funds. The return on equity represents the rate of return earned on the owner’s equity and investment.
Total current assets divided by total current liabilities. This ratio gives an indication of a business’s ability to pay its short term liabilities.
Total current assets minus closing stock divided by total current liabilities. The quick ratio, also known as the acid test, is very similar to the current ratio, but excludes stock. It tests a business’s ability to pay short-term debt from immediately convertible or liquid assets.
Total proprietor or shareholder funds divided by (total proprietor or shareholder funds plus total liabilities). The liability structure ratio represents equity solely as a proportion of equity plus liabilities. A low ratio indicates a low level of owner’s equity in the business, and a higher risk to debt holders.
Benchmark ratios are calculated using Inland Revenue tax data. All businesses supplying financial statements and tax returns are included, where the turnover for those businesses is between $60,000 and $10 million. Stats NZ provide benchmark ratios at the mid-points (medians), the 25th and 75th percentile (Interquartile ranges). Half the businesses in a turnover band will be below the mid-point (or median), and half will be above. Quarter of the businesses in a turnover band will be below the 25th percentile and quarter will be above the 75th percentile.
Size bands are based on turnover. Stats NZ produce four even quarters of the industry population based on the number of businesses to help you find the most comparable indicators for your business size (i.e. micro, small, medium, or large). A minimum of 30 responding units in each quartile (120 per industry) is required for an industry’s ratio to be published.
These statistics are released with a caveat because of limitations in the data, they are of a lower standard than official statistics the department releases. This is because AES sample are selected and weighted at an AES industry level and not at an ANZSIC level. This data is indicative only, and may be subject to revisions in the future.
These statistics do not claim to present a picture of the total New Zealand economy. Some industrial activities are entirely excluded and others are under-covered with regard to smaller business units, particularly those that fall below the threshold for compulsory GST registration. These figures exclude GST.
Of the 483 industries, 224 industries have a sufficient number of businesses to calculate reliable ratios. For example, there are four turnover (total income) bands and each must have a minimum number of units (30) to meet confidentiality and quality requirements. If one band fails this requirement, no data is published for any of the bands within that industry.
Stats NZ has calculated the industry benchmarks using information provided on financial statements and tax returns. All businesses supplying financial statements and tax returns are included in the calculation of standard performance range, where the turnover for those businesses is between $60,000 and $10 million inclusive.
Turnover bands have been calculated to produce four even quarters of the industry population. This allows finding the most comparable indicators for business size (i.e. micro, small, medium, or large). A minimum of 30 responding units in each quartile (120 per industry) is required for an industry’s ratio to be published.
For some industries, changes in indicators are not consistent with the change in business turnover/size. This may happen because business turnover is not the only factor influencing values of particular indicators (ie. operating structure, and geographic location can also influence indicator values).
Inland Revenue supplies each business's financial returns and attachments to Stats NZ, who use this information to calculate the industry benchmarks. Stats NZ does not return any information about any specific business data to Inland Revenue, nor anything that could be used to identify any individual to Inland Revenue.
Method of collection/Data provider
Stats.NZ calculated the financial statistics in this tool using the Annual Enterprise Survey (AES). AES is New Zealand's most comprehensive source of financial statistics. It provides annual information on the financial performance and financial position for industry groups operating within New Zealand. Data is sourced from Inland Revenue tax data, a Stats NZ postal survey, and from Charities Services.