New Zealand households whose income does not meet everyday needs

By household income quintile, year ended June 2016, thousands of households


Material standard of living is defined as the things that money can buy, and so does not represent the capacity to enjoy life, or the state of health.
One usually resident member of the household aged 18 years or over was randomly selected to respond to survey questions about their material standard of living.
The material well-being index (MWI) should not be compared over time.
Income is before tax, from regular and recurring sources only. Income figures are collected for people aged 15 years or over. Income groups are quintiles (to the nearest hundred dollars) of household income.

Adequacy of income to meet
everyday needs: This refers to the income of an individual, or a couple's combined income where the couple live in the same household.

Household counts in columns are rounded to the nearest hundred. Figures may not sum to stated totals, due to rounding.


Household: a group of people who share a private dwelling and normally spend four or more nights a week in the household. They must share consumption of food, or contribute some portion of income towards essentials for living as a group.
Household income: before-tax (gross) income. Income is not equivalised. That is, it is not adjusted to remove the effects of household size or type (eg the number of dependent children).
Personal income: it represents the before-tax income of each household member aged 15 years and over in the twelve months ended 30 June.

For more information

Limitations of the data

Two types of error are possible in estimates based on a sample survey: sampling error and non-sampling error. The sample size for this survey is approximately 5,000 households, therefore the error for subnational estimates may be significant.

Changes to data collection/processing

The New Zealand Household Expenditure Classification (NZHEC) was reviewed between 2012/13 and 2015/16.

Data provided by

Stats NZ

Dataset name

Household Economic Survey: Expenditure Statistics, Year ended June 2016


Import & extraction details

File as imported: Household Economic Survey: Expenditure Statistics, Year ended June 2016

From the dataset Household Economic Survey: Expenditure Statistics, Year ended June 2016, this data was extracted:

  • Sheet: Table 10
  • Range: C11:M22
  • Provided: 54 data points

This data forms the table Income - Rating of material standard of living by household income quintile 2016.

Dataset originally released on:

December 02, 2016

About this dataset

This survey is conducted every three years, and collects information on household expenditure and income, material well-being, as well as a wide range of demographic information. A shorter version of the survey, HES (Income), is collected in the two years between the full HES.

Method of collection/Data provider

The sample size for HES is approximately 5,000 households.
The main differences between the full version and the Income version of the survey include the extent to which expenditure data is collected. The full HES collects expenditure information, including purchases of food, clothing, and household items. An expenditure diary is used to collect some of this detailed information in addition to the questionnaire. In HES (Income), the only expenditure data collected relates to specific housing costs, including rent, mortgages, property rates, and building-related insurance. The diary is not used.
The target population for HES is the usually resident population of New Zealand living in private dwellings, aged 15 years and over.