International Comparisons - Main science and technology indicators by country 2011–2018
GERD: Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D, which is the sum of R&D performed by business, government, higher education and non-profit sectors.
BERD: Expenditure on R&D in the Business Enterprise Sector
GOVERD: Government Intramural Expenditure on R&D
HERD: Expenditure on R&D in the Higher Education Sector
FTE: Full-time Equivalent (on R&D)
GBARD: Government Budget Allocations for R&D, which cover government-financed R&D performed in the national territory as well as abroad.
Civil GBARD: Government Budget Allocations for R&D excluding defence.
GUF: General University Funds
R&D: Research and Experimental Development
ISIC: International Standard Industrial Classification
PCT: Patent Co-operation Treaty
TBP: Technology Balance of Payments. The TBP registers the commercial transactions related to international technology transfers. It consists of money paid or received for the acquisition and use of patents, licences, trademarks, designs, know-how and closely related technical services (including technical assistance) and for industrial R&D carried out abroad, etc.
The patent families presented in this publication refer to triadic families: i.e. a patent is a member of the patent families if and only if it is filed at the European Patent Office (EPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO) and the US Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO).
Researchers: professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, as well as in the management of the projects concerned.
Expenditure in Current Dollars (PPP)
National currency data have been converted to US$ using purchasing power parities (PPPs). The PPPs are those developed by the OECD National Accounts Division, updated for the most recent years by comparing the growth in prices (implicit GDP deflator) in each country with that Main Science and Technology Indicators in the United States. These estimated parities are footnoted "b" in the tables as are any data converted to current dollars using them. For most of the non-OECD economies featured in MSTI, PPP rates provided by the World Bank are used to convert data from national currency into PPPs. Only TBP data have been converted using current exchange rates as these transactions are conducted on international markets.
Expenditure in Constant Dollars
R&D expenditure series have been deflated using the implicit GDP deflator taken from the OECD National Accounts database updated for the most recent years by Secretariat projections of changes in the GDP deflator, as published twice a year in the OECD Economic Outlook.
Compound Annual Growth Rates
Average annual growth is calculated at compound rates when the intervals are not annual. Expenditure growth is calculated at constant prices.
For more information
Changes to data collection/processing
New Zealand revised the methods of collection and estimation of R&D data respectively in 1984 (for the Higher Education sector), 1992 (for GUF), and 2001 (BERD and national total and HE personnel).
From 2006 onwards, GBARD data are collected from all government agencies, together with analysis of selected budgetary information. Prior to that year, data were derived from the budget estimate of the pool for science funding, together with figures on government department’s operational research.
Data provided by
OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators 2018
How to find the data
At URL provided, select Science, Technology & Patents -> Science & Technology Indicators -> Main Science and Technology Database from the left-hand column.
Import & extraction details
File as imported: OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators 2018
From the dataset OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators 2018, this data was extracted:
- Rows: 2-37,865
- Column: 13
- Provided: 37,864 data points
Dataset originally released on:
About this dataset
This dataset provides a set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and seven non-member economies (Argentina, People's Republic of China, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Chinese Taipei) in the field of science and technology.
These data include final or provisional results as well as forecasts established by government authorities. The indicators cover the resources devoted to research and development, patent families and international trade in R&D-intensive industries. Also presented are the underlying economic series used to calculate these indicators.
Method of collection/Data provider
The R&D data used in this publication have been collected and presented in line with the standard OECD methodology for R&D statistics as laid out in the OECD “Frascati Manual” (http://oe.cd/frascati).