Census - Disability status, personal income by sex, age group, ethnic group, and DHB 2018

Stats NZ

Subject matter

Total personal income received is the total before-tax income of a person in the 12 months ended 31 March 2018. The information is collected as income bands rather than in actual dollars. This includes all possible sources of income, such as wages and salaries, self-employment, investments, ACC payments, welfare benefits, etc. People may obtain income from more than one source. This information applies the census usually resident population aged 15 years and over, regardless of the employment status.

Response rates and final data sources

Income: The response rate from 2018 Census forms was 81.2%. 16.5% were sourced from administrative data supplied by Inland Revenue. 2.3% of responses were imputed. Disability status: The response rate from 2018 Census forms only was 84%. There was no information for 16% of individuals.


A person is regarded as disabled if they have 'a lot of difficulty' or 'cannot do at all?' one or more of the six activities in the Activity limitations questions. These six questions are the Washington Group Short Set of questions on Disability and are referred to as Activity limitations in the 2018 Census.
The questions ask whether people have difficulty performing any of six basic universal activities (walking, seeing, hearing, cognition, self-care, and communication) and were designed for use with the general population. The questions were not designed to measure all domains of functioning with which people may have difficulty, but rather those domains that are likely to identify a majority of people at risk of participation restrictions.
Disability status is derived from six activity questions:
- difficulty seeing
- difficulty hearing
- difficulty walking or climbing steps
- difficulty remembering or concentrating
- difficulty washing all over or dressing
- difficulty communicating.

Data calculation/treatment

Figure.NZ calculated percentages based on the 'Total stated' values for each variable. Individual percentages may not sum to 100% and values for the same data may vary in different tables.

For more information



Geographically the census includes the North Island, South Island, Stewart Island, and the Chatham Islands, plus largely uninhabited islands including the Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, Mayor Island, Motiti Island, White Island, Moutohora Island, Bounty Islands, Snares Islands, Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, and Campbell Island.


This data excludes children under the age of 15.

Changes to data collection/processing

The 2018 Census was a modernised census based on models used in 2016 by the Canadian and Australian statistical agencies and then applied in the New Zealand context. Stats NZ collaborated with census experts from both countries when designing the model.

Under the new model, how Stats NZ enabled/collected from the respondents changed from predominately field-based activities to 80 percent mail-out with a reduced field presence and increased communications, marketing and engagement. The way respondents completed their forms also changed, with a greater focus on online completion over paper. The majority of the population was encouraged to complete the census online using an internet access code mailed to their households before census night. The new collection model therefore relied on the public to self-respond, rather than wait for a visit from field staff. Field follow-up activities were also planned.

The main areas of change were:
- phasing the model (prepare, enable, remind and visit)
- strategies used across the different phases
- mailing out “call to action” letters with an internet access code and instructions on how to order paper forms, if required, as the first interaction with census
- reducing the number of field staff, with a new structure and roles
- outsourcing the recruitment functions for field staff
- introducing new field technology
- creating a new address frame (a list of all dwellings in New Zealand)
- an integrated communications campaign including community engagement
- a new approach to processing the census data.

Data provided by

Stats NZ

Dataset name

Census: Measuring inequality for disabled New Zealanders - Grouped personal income 2018



How to find the data

At the URL provided, download 'Selected measures by disability status: 2018 Census – CSV"

Import & extraction details

File as imported: Census: Measuring inequality for disabled New Zealanders - Grouped personal income 2018

From the dataset Census: Measuring inequality for disabled New Zealanders - Grouped personal income 2018, this data was extracted:

  • Rows: 2-865
  • Column: 9
  • Provided: 864 data points

Dataset originally released on:

October 28, 2020

About this dataset

Measuring inequality for disabled New Zealanders: 2018 brings together data from three Stats NZ surveys to explore differences between the lives of disabled and non-disabled people in Aotearoa.

The goal of government policy and international agreements about disability is the improvement of disabled people’s lives. Monitoring the difference between disabled and non-disabled people in a consistent way, and over a wide range of outcomes, is a key step towards achieving this goal.

Purpose of collection

Census information is used by government agencies, local authorities, businesses, community organisations, and the public for developing and implementing new policies, research, planning, and decision-making. It helps make decisions about how to best use public funding, especially in areas of health, education, housing, and transport.
The census is also the primary source of information used for deciding the number of general and Māori electorates, along with data from the corresponding Māori Electoral Option.