International Comparisons - Trade indicators for manufacturing in OECD countries 2001–2010

OECD

Definitions

Composition of manufacturing exports of goods: This indicator shows the exports in a given manufacturing industry as a percentage of total manufacturing exports.
It is calculated as follows: 100 * (EXPO_i / EXPO_manuf)

Composition of manufacturing imports of goods: This indicator shows the imports in a given manufacturing industry as a percentage of total manufacturing imports.
It is calculated as follows: 100 * (IMPO_i / IMPO_manuf)

Composition of total exports of goods: This indicator shows the exports of goods in a given industry as a percentage of total industries' exports of goods.
It is calculated as follows: 100 * (EXPO_i / EXPO_total)

Composition of total imports of goods: This indicator shows the imports in a given industry as a percentage of total industries' imports.
It is calculated as follows: 100 * (IMPO_i / IMPO_total)

Contribution to manufacturing trade balance: enables to identify an economy's structural strengths and weaknesses via the composition of international trade flows.
It can be interpreted as an indicator of "revealed comparative advantage", as it indicates whether an industry performs relatively better or worse than the manufacturing total, no matter whether the manufacturing total itself is in deficit or surplus. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * [ (EXPO_i - IMPO_i) - (EXPO_manuf - IMPO_manuf) * (EXPO_i + IMPO_i) / (EXPO_manuf + IMPO_manuf) ] / (EXPO_manuf - IMPO_manuf)

Employment shares in total economy: This indicator addresses the issue of employment structure and shows for each industry the total employment (i.e. total number of persons engaged) share in the total economy. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (EMPN_i / EMPN_total)

Employment shares in manufacturing: This indicator shows each industry's employment as a percentage of employment for total manufacturing. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (EMPN_i / EMPN_manuf)

Export import ratio: This indicator shows exports as a percentage of imports.

Intra‑industry trade: the value of total trade remaining after subtraction of the absolute value of net exports or imports of an industry.
For comparison between countries and industries, the measures are expressed as a percentage of each industry's combined exports and imports.
For total manufacturing, the calculation is the summation of the value of total trade remaining after subtraction of the absolute value of net exports or imports for all manufacturing industries.

Export share of production: This indicator highlights the export effort and it is calculated as exports as a percentage of production.
100 * (EXPO_i / PROD_i)
The export share of production shows the importance of the foreign market for a given industry in a country. This indicator may change over time as supply and demand conditions change in foreign and domestic markets.
It is important to bear in mind that exports can exceed production. This can occur for the following reasons:
(i) exports include re-exports (this particularly concerns countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands where there is a significant amount of ‘transit trade');
(ii) production data are usually based on Industrial Surveys which record establishments' primary activities. Therefore, activities that are mainly secondary may be understated in terms of production by not being allocated to the relevant ISIC code while exports of the related commodities are allocated to that ISIC code;
(iii) bias introduced by the conversion from product-based trade statistics to activity-based industry statistics for certain sectors for certain countries.

Import penetration indicator shows imports as a percentage of total domestic demand (this latter is estimated as production less exports plus imports). This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * [ IMPO_i / (PROD_i - EXPO_i + IMPO_i) ]
For a given country (or country group), a value close to 100 in a certain industry, implies that domestic demand is mainly fulfilled by imports and domestic production tends to be exported.
A value close to 0 means self sufficient, i.e. domestic demand is mainly satisfied by domestic production.
A value above 100 illustrates measurement problems which may occur when combining production and trade data.
It is important to bear in mind that exports can exceed production. This can occur for the following reasons:
(i) exports include re-exports (this particularly concerns countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands where there is a significant amount of ‘transit trade');
(ii) production data are usually based on Industrial Surveys which record establishments' primary activities. Therefore, activities that are mainly secondary may be understated in terms of production by not being allocated to the relevant ISIC code while exports of the related commodities are allocated to that ISIC code;
(iii) bias introduced by the conversion from product-based trade statistics to activity-based industry statistics for certain sectors for certain countries.

This indicator shows the share of nominal value added by industry in the total economy. It highlights the importance of each industry in the economies of OECD countries. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (VALU_i / VALU_total)
Note: The valuation of value added differs among countries and may therefore influence the interpretation of these indicators - value added is measured at basic prices for all countries except Japan (at producer's prices) and the United States (at market prices).

This indicator shows the share of nominal value added by industry in the total manufacturing. It highlights the contribution of each manufacturing industry to the total manufacturing sector. This indicators is calculated as follows:
100 * (VALU_i / VALU_manuf)
Note: The valuation of value added differs among countries and may therefore influence the interpretation of these indicators - value added is measured at basic prices for all countries except Japan (at producer's prices) and the United States (at market prices).

Value added share of production relates to production structure. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (VALU_i / PROD_i)

Intermediate consumption share of production related to production structure. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (INTI_i / PROD_i)

This indicator shows the R&D expenditures for an industry as a percentage of R&D expenditures for the total economy.
R&D expenditures data are expressed at current prices and are drawn from the STAN, R&D Expenditure in Industry (ANBERD) which covers business R&D and excludes government, public administration R&D expenditures, etc. (see ANBERD metadata or Frascati Manual for further details).
In ANBERD, agriculture and primary production are included in the big total (cf industry CTOTAL). This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (ANBERD_i / ANBERD_total)

This indicator shows the R&D expenditures for an industry as a percentage of R&D expenditures for the total manufacturing.
R&D expenditures data are expressed at current prices and are drawn from the STAN, R&D Expenditure in Industry (ANBERD) which covers business R&D and excludes government, public administration R&D expenditures, etc. (see ANBERD metadata or Frascati Manual for further details).
In ANBERD, agriculture and primary production are included in the big total (cf industry CTOTAL). This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (ANBERD_i / ANBERD_manuf)

R&D intensities are calculated in two ways. The first expresses R&D expenditures as a percentage of value added (indicator presented hereafter) while the second expressed R&D expenditures as a percentage of production.
These two indicators cannot be calculated for most country groups and are not always available for recent years due to the difference in coverage between R&D, production and value added data by country. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (ANBERD_i / VALU_i)

R&D intensities are calculated in two ways. The first expresses R&D expenditures as a percentage of value added while the second expressed R&D expenditures as a percentage of production (indicator presented here).
These two indicators cannot be calculated for most country groups and are not always available for recent years due to the difference in coverage between R&D, production and value added data by country. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (ANBERD_i / PROD_i)

Labour compensation per employee relative to the total economy is calculated as the ratio of labour compensation for a particular industry (or industry group) to the number engaged divided by the ratio of labour compensation for the total economy to the number of persons engaged for the total economy. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * [ (LABR_i / EMPN_i) / (LABR_total / EMPN_total) ]

Labour compensation per employee relative to total manufacturing is calculated as the ratio of labour compensation for a particular manufacturing industry (or industry group) to the number engaged divided by the ratio of labour compensation for total manufacturing to the number of persons engaged for total manufacturing. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * [ (LABR_i / EMPN_i) / (LABR_manuf / EMPN_manuf) ]

Labour shares of value added shows labour compensation in a certain industry as a percentage of value added in that industry.
Labour costs can exceed value added when an industry incurs losses or when an industry receives significant net subsidies (value added measured at producer's prices does not include subsidies). However, the occurrence of values exceeding 100 may also be due to measurement biases when certain series are estimates. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (LABR_i / VALU_i)

Labour productivity is here calculated as the ratio of value added volumes to number engaged. Labour productivity represents the amount of output per unit of input, output being here defined as value added while the input measure used is total employment.
Although hours worked would be preferable as a measure of labour input, at the present time consistent hours worked data at the industry level are not available in STAN Database for all OECD countries.
Series for this indicator are presented as indices, having data for the reference year of each country = 100 (most countries use 2000 as ref. year). This indicator is not calculated for zones (i.e. country groups). This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (VALK_i / EMPN_i) / (VALK_i_2000 / EMPN_i_2000)

Unit labour cost is the the ratio of labour compensation at current prices to output as measured here by value added volumes.
It represents the current cost of labour to produce one unit of output and reflects how labour costs increase / decrease relative to output; it is an indicator of costs competitiveness.
Labour costs can exceed value added in certain cases; for example, when heavy losses are incurred within an industry or, more generally, when an industry's gross operating surplus is negative and/or it receives significant subsidies.
The series are presented as indices having the reference year of each country equal to 100 (most of countries use 2000 as ref. year). This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (LABR_i / VALK_i) / (LABR_i_2000 / VALK_i_2000)

Investment intensity based on value added: This indicator is calculated as the ratio of gross fixed capital formation in a certain industry to value added in that industry. Investment intensity is calculated as follows:
100 * (GFCF_i / VALU_i)

Investment shares relative to total economy: This indicator represents the investment composition of the total economy. It is calculated by dividing each industry's gross fixed capital formation by gross fixed capital formation for total economy. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (GFCF_i / GFCF_total)

Investment shares in total manufacturing represents the investment composition of manufacturing. It is calculated by dividing each manufacturing industry's gross fixed capital formation by gross fixed capital formation for total manufacturing. This indicator is calculated as follows:
100 * (GFCF_i / GFCF_manuf)

Trade balance: is the difference between the value of exports and imports of goods. Here, it is expressed in million of US dollars.
When exports' values exceed imports, there is a trade surplus. When imports'values exceed exports, there is a trade deficit.

Data provided by

OECD

Dataset name

OECD Structural Analysis Indicators 2010 (f)

Webpage:

http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=STANINDICATORS#

How to find the data

Data is displayed at URL provided. To select desired variables, choose 'Customise'; to export, choose 'Export'
Under STAN INDICATORS select all available countries, years and variables. Within 'Industry' select C15T37 MANUFACTURING and its sub-industries (one level down).

Import & extraction details

File as imported: OECD Structural Analysis Indicators 2010 (f)

From the dataset OECD Structural Analysis Indicators 2010 (f), this data was extracted:

  • Rows: 2-77,252
  • Column: 9
  • Provided: 77,251 data points

Dataset originally released on:

April 05, 2011