Income - Housing costs to household income ratios by dwelling ownership 2007–2016

Stats NZ


Housing costs include expenditure on rents and mortgages, property rates, and building-related insurance.
Household income is from total regular and recurring income sources, and is gross (before tax) income.

Dwelling ownership is an aggregation of categories from the 'tenure of household' classification. Tenure refers to the nature of the occupancy of a household in a private dwelling at the time of the survey. It does not refer to the tenure of the land on which the dwelling is situated.

Ratios are calculated using the aggregate housing-costs amount as a proportion of the aggregate household-income amount.

The ratios are not mutually exclusive. Households that pay 30 percent or more of their total household income on housing costs are also included in the 25 percent or more category. Similarly, households that pay 40 percent or more of their total household income on housing costs are included in the 25 percent and 30 percent categories.

Household counts are rounded to the nearest hundred. Percentages are rounded to one decimal place, and are calculated on unrounded figures.


Household: a group of people who share a private dwelling and normally spend four or more nights a week in the household. They must share consumption of food, or contribute some portion of income towards essentials for living as a group.
Household income: before-tax (gross) income. Income is not equivalised. That is, it is not adjusted to remove the effects of household size or type (eg the number of dependent children).
Personal income: it represents the before-tax income of each household member aged 15 years and over in the twelve months ended 30 June.

For more information

Limitations of the data

Two types of error are possible in estimates based on a sample survey: sampling error and non-sampling error. The sample size for this survey is approximately 5,000 households, therefore the error for subnational estimates may be significant.

Changes to data collection/processing

The New Zealand Household Expenditure Classification (NZHEC) was reviewed between 2012/13 and 2015/16.

Data provided by

Stats NZ

Dataset name

Household Economic Survey: Expenditure Statistics, Year ended June 2016


Import & extraction details

File as imported: Household Economic Survey: Expenditure Statistics, Year ended June 2016

From the dataset Household Economic Survey: Expenditure Statistics, Year ended June 2016, this data was extracted:

  • Sheet: Table 5
  • Range: C11:J118
  • Provided: 240 data points

Dataset originally released on:

December 02, 2016

About this dataset

This survey is conducted every three years, and collects information on household expenditure and income, material well-being, as well as a wide range of demographic information. A shorter version of the survey, HES (Income), is collected in the two years between the full HES.

Method of collection/Data provider

The sample size for HES is approximately 5,000 households.
The main differences between the full version and the Income version of the survey include the extent to which expenditure data is collected. The full HES collects expenditure information, including purchases of food, clothing, and household items. An expenditure diary is used to collect some of this detailed information in addition to the questionnaire. In HES (Income), the only expenditure data collected relates to specific housing costs, including rent, mortgages, property rates, and building-related insurance. The diary is not used.
The target population for HES is the usually resident population of New Zealand living in private dwellings, aged 15 years and over.