Income - Housing costs to household disposable income ratios by dwelling ownership 2019–2020
Housing costs include expenditure on rents and mortgages, property rates, and building-related insurance.
Household income is from disposable (after tax) income.
Dwelling ownership is an aggregation of categories from the 'tenure of household' classification. Tenure refers to the nature of the occupancy of a household in a private dwelling at the time of the survey. It does not refer to the tenure of the land on which the dwelling is situated.
Ratios are calculated using the aggregate housing-costs amount as a proportion of the aggregate household-income amount.
The ratios are not mutually exclusive. Households that pay 30 percent or more of their total household income on housing costs are also included in the 25 percent or more category. Similarly, households that pay 40 percent or more of their total household income on housing costs are included in the 25 percent and 30 percent categories.
Household counts are rounded to the nearest hundred. Percentages are rounded to one decimal place, and are calculated on unrounded figures.
Household: is either one person who usually resides alone, or two or more people who usually reside together and share facilities (such as for eating or cooking) in a private dwelling. A household may contain one or more families, other people in addition to a family, or no families at all, such as unrelated people living together.
Total housing costs: consists of expenditure from the following sources: mortgage principal repayments, mortgage interest payments, mortgage application fees, rent payments, other payments associated with renting (for example bonds paid in the last 12 months), property rates payments (both regional and local government), and payments associated with building-related insurance.
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Limitations of the data
Two types of error are possible in estimates based on a sample survey: sampling error and non-sampling error. The sample size for this survey is approximately 5,500 households, therefore the error for subnational estimates may be significant.
The target population for HES (Income) is the usually resident population of New Zealand living in private dwellings, aged 15 years and over. This population does not include:
- overseas visitors who are in New Zealand for less than 12 months
- people living in non-private dwellings such as hotels, motels, boarding houses, hostels, and homes for the elderly
- patients in hospitals, or residents of psychiatric or penal institutions
- members of the permanent armed forces in group living facilities; for example, barracks
- people living on offshore islands (excluding Waiheke Island)
- members of the non-New Zealand armed forces
- non-New Zealand diplomats and their families.
Changes to data collection/processing
Stats NZ have made use of the latest population estimates based on the 2018 Census.
As a result of this the number of households was revised downwards by 0.1 percent for the year ended June 2019, with the largest decrease in Auckland and the largest increase in the Bay of Plenty. Looked at in isolation, census rebasing led to small increases in average household incomes nationally.
Stats NZ have made changes to better align Working for Families income with the time period for other income, which had led to more people receiving some Working for Families income, as well as some receiving an increased level of income in the year to June 2019.
Alongside incorporating the revised Working for Families methodology, Stats NZ used the most recent administrative data for benefits and incomes.
As a result of these changes, average (mean) household incomes decreased slightly but median incomes increased slightly. However, there was a significant increase in household incomes for the lowest-income households.
Data provided by
Household Economic Survey: Income, Year ended June 2020
How to find the data
At URL provided, select 'Household income and housing-cost statistics: Year ended June 2020 – (corrected)' from under the 'Download Data' heading.
Import & extraction details
File as imported: Household Economic Survey: Income, Year ended June 2020
From the dataset Household Economic Survey: Income, Year ended June 2020, this data was extracted:
- Sheet: Table 10
- Provided: 96 data points
Dataset originally released on:
April 29, 2021
About this dataset
The household economic survey (HES) is an annual survey designed to measure the economic wellbeing of New Zealanders. HES has three components: HES income, HES expenditure, and HES net worth.
- HES income is the main vehicle, and it is run every year. It includes household income, housing costs, and material wellbeing – this is ‘core’ HES.
- HES expenditure includes additional components – an expenditure diary and an expanded household expenditure questionnaire. It runs every three years.
- HES net worth includes additional questions on household assets and liabilities. It also runs every three years.
Purpose of collection
The three main objectives of HES (Income) are to measure patterns of inequality in household income (used for policy-making decisions); measure people’s life satisfaction, housing conditions, and financial stress; provide an indication of the overall living standards of New Zealanders.
Method of collection/Data provider
In HES 2019/20 Stats NZ added a self-complete component to the questionnaire wherein Stats NZ asked questions relating to personal demographics. Stats NZ also asked questions relating to gender, sexual orientation and sex at birth for the first time in this module. Questions on disability were also included in this module. Also, respondents were not asked to provide amounts for income variables (wages and salaries; benefits; and other payments received from the New Zealand Government) since Stats NZ are able to obtain these from admin data sources.