Treasury - Government revenue and surplus/deficit measures (NZD millions) 1997–2023
Operating Balance: Revenue less expenses, plus net gains and losses. It shows whether the government sector has generated enough revenues to cover its expenses in any given year.
OBEGAL - Operating Balance Before Gains And Losses: The most significant gains and losses are from changes in the fair value of financial assets and liabilities. By excluding volatile gains and losses the OBEGAL gives a more direct indication of the underlying stewardship of the Government than the operating balance.
Core Crown Residual Cash: The level of money the Government has available to repay debt or, alternatively, needs to borrow in any given year. Therefore the balance of residual cash equals the change in debt in any given year. Residual cash is alternatively termed "Cash available/(shortfall to be funded)". Residual cash is equal to net core Crown cashflow from operations excluding NZS Fund less core Crown capital commitments (eg contributions to the NZS fund, purchases of assets, and loan activity).
Revenue: Comprises mainly tax, but also includes investment income, sales of goods and services and other revenues.
COFOG - Classification of the Functions of Government: A classification defined by the United Nations Statistics Division. Its purpose is to "classify the purpose of transactions such as outlays on final consumption expenditure, intermediate consumption, gross capital formation and capital and current transfers, by general government".
GAAP - Generally Accepted Accounting Practice: The standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction; generally known as accounting standards or standard accounting practice. These include the standards, conventions, and rules that accountants follow in recording and summarizing and in the preparation of financial statements.
IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards: The rules to be followed by accountants internationally to maintain books of accounts which are comparable, understandable, reliable and relevant as per the users internal or external.
PBE - Public Benefit Entity: A reporting entity whose primary objective is to provide goods or services for community or social benefit, and where any equity has been provided with a view to supporting that primary objective rather than for a financial return to equity holders.
Data from 1997-2004 for accrual measures (expenses, revenue, OBEGAL, Operating Balance and debt series) are based on values published in the Financial Statements of Government but have been backdated to be consistent with International Financial Reporting Standards. The values therefore differ from those in the published accounts. Cash measures (cash receipts and residual cash) are consistent with those in the published accounts.
Data from 2005 onwards for accrual measures (expenses, revenue, OBEGAL, operating balance and debt series) are based on values published in the Financial Statements of Government but have been backdated to be consistent with Public Sector PBE Standards. PBE Standards were adopted in 2015, therefore for 2005-2014 the values differ from those in the published accounts. Cash measures (cash receipts and residual cash) are consistent with those in the published accounts.
The nominal GDP track is based on the quarterly Infoshare series (SNDQ.SG02NAC00B15Z) available from Stats NZ.
Note - Values as a percentage of GDP may differ from those published due to revisions to the GDP series.
Changes to data collection/processing
Two new PBE accounting standards were adopted at 30 June 2020 and the results as at 30 June 2019 have been restated to reflect this change.
Data provided by
Fiscal Time Series: Historical Fiscal Indicators 2023
How to find the data
Under 'Formats and related files', select 'Fiscal Time Series Historical Indicators 1972 - 2023'.
Import & extraction details
File as imported: Fiscal Time Series: Historical Fiscal Indicators 2023
From the dataset Fiscal Time Series: Historical Fiscal Indicators 2023, this data was extracted:
- Sheet: Revenue, Surplus measures
- Provided: 189 data points
Dataset originally released on:
January 29, 2024
About this dataset
This dataset published by the Treasury contains historical fiscal data, including debt, fiscal balance, tax and spending.