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Number of researchers in OECD countries

2013, per thousand employment


GERD: Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D, which is the sum of R&D performed by business, government, higher education and non-profit sectors.
BERD: Expenditure on R&D in the Business Enterprise Sector
GOVERD: Government Intramural Expenditure on R&D
HERD: Expenditure on R&D in the Higher Education Sector
FTE: Full-time Equivalent (on R&D)
GBAORD: Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D, which cover government-financed R&D performed in the national teritory as well as abroad.
Civil GBAORD: Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D excluding defence.
GUF: General University Funds
R&D: Research and Experimental Development
ISIC: International Standard Industrial Classification
PCT: Patent Co-operation Treaty
TBP: Technology Balance of Payments. The TBP registers the commercial transactions related to international technology transfers. It consists of money paid or received for the acquisition and use of patents, licences, trademarks, designs, know-how and closely related technical services (including technical assistance) and for industrial R&D carried out abroad, etc.

The patent families presented in this publication refer to triadic families: i.e. a patent is a member of the patent families if and only if it is filed at the European Patent Office (EPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO) and the US Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO).

Researchers: professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, as well as in the management of the projects concerned.

Data calculation/treatment

Expenditure in Current Dollars (PPP)
National currency data have been converted to US$ using purchasing power parities (PPPs). The PPPs are those developed by the OECD National Accounts Division, updated for the most recent years by comparing the growth in prices (implicit GDP deflator) in each country with that Main Science and Technology Indicators in the United States. These estimated parities are footnoted "b" in the tables as are any data converted to current dollars using them. For most of the non-OECD economies featured in MSTI, PPP rates provided by the World Bank are used to convert data from national currency into PPPs. Only TBP data have been converted using current exchange rates as these transactions are conducted on international markets.

Expenditure in Constant Dollars
R&D expenditure series have been deflated using the implicit GDP deflator taken from the OECD National Accounts database updated for the most recent years by Secretariat projections of
changes in the GDP deflator, as published twice a year in the OECD Economic Outlook (except in the case of Norway where a deflator excluding trends in petroleum prices has been used) (Series B). Any
growth rates calculated on the basis of these estimated rates are footnoted "b".

Compound Annual Growth Rates
Average annual growth is calculated at compound rates when the intervals are not annual. Expenditure growth is calculated at constant prices.

A thorough explanation of this dataset can be found at

Changes to data collection/processing

New Zealand revised the methods of collection and estimation of R&D data respectively in 1984 (for the Higher Education sector), 1992 (for GUF), and 2001 (BERD and national total and HE personnel). GBAORD figures have been revised back to 2007 resulting in a break in series.
From 2006 onwards, GBAORD data are collected from all government agencies, together with analysis of selected budgetary information. Prior to that year, data were derived from the budget estimate of the pool for science funding, together with figures on government department’s operational research.
Up to 1997, TBP data came from the R&D survey conducted by the Ministry of Research, Science & Technology. From 1999 onwards, the data are based on the quarterly International Trade in Services and Royalties Survey carried out by Statistics New Zealand. All TBP components are covered.

Data provided by


Dataset name

OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators 2015


How to find the data

At URL provided, select Science, Technology & Patents -> Science & Technology Indicators -> Main Science and Technology Database from the left-hand column.

Import & extraction details

File as imported: OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators 2015

From the dataset OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators 2015, this data was extracted:

  • Rows: 2-72,993
  • Column: 13
  • Provided: 72,493 data points

This data forms the table International Comparisons - Main science and technology indicators for OECD countries 2000–2015.

Dataset originally released on:

July 10, 2015