R&D expenditure in OECD countries
2014, % of Gross Domestic Product
Million NC: Expressed in million national currency at current prices.
Million USD PPPs: Expressed in million USD using Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) at current prices.
Million constant USD PPPs: Expressed in million USD using Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) at constant prices.
% of GDP: Expressed as a % of GDP
OECD share, %: Expressed as a % of total OECD.
World share estimate, %: Expressed as a % of total world.
Compound annual growth rate at constant prices, %: Compound annual growth rate at constant prices (%).
Index: Expressed as a normalised index of performance (OECD median= 100)
Ease of entrepreneurship index: calculated as 6 minus the barriers to entrepreneurship index (Code indicator=BTE_I).
Financed by government (direct), % of direct and tax funding of business R&D: Expressed as a % of total public funding of business R&D (through direct funding and tax incentives).
Financed by direct and tax funding, % of total public funding of R&D: Expressed as a % of total public funding of R&D (to all actors, including firms and universities).
% of total basic research: Expressed as a % of total basic research expenditure (all sectors of performance).
% of total PSERD: Expressed as a % of total public R&D expenditure (combined R&D expenditure by the higher education and government sectors)
% of total GBAORD: Expressed as a % of total Government Budget Appropriations and Outlays for R&D (GBAORD).
% of all PCT patent applications: Expressed as a % of PCT patent applications filed in bio- and nano-technologies.
The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook reviews key trends in STI policies and performance in OECD countries and major emerging economies. It is published every two years and draws on a unique international policy survey conducted by the OECD - with more than 45 countries involved in 2014 - and the latest OECD work on STI policy analysis and measurement. Following an overview of the recent STI global landscape, key current policy issues are discussed across a series of thematic policy profiles. Country profiles report the STI performance of individual countries and the most recent national policy developments.
The STI Outlook gathers a number of science and innovation-related indicators which raw data are drawn from OECD official databases and equivalent in international organisations (e.g. Eurostat, International Monetary Fund, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, World Bank etc.), as well as from international sources of relevance. The statistical material of the STI Outlook is derivated from the Innovation Policy Platform (IPP) jointly developed by the OECD and the World Bank to support policy analysis in the field of science, technology and innovation and in particular its statistical component (IPP.Stat).
For more detailed information on each source, go to http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?queryid=60778# and click on the blue 'i' links next to each data category
Limitations of the data
OECD (2014), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014, OECD Publishing, Paris, accessible on the OECD iLibrary or browse the full book online.
Data should be interpreted with caution taking into account definitions, methodology and metadata in original data sources. Please cite original sources when relevant.
See also the Methodological Annex (http://stats.oecd.org/wbos/fileview2.aspx?IDFile=568ca0e2-d2b7-4e78-b1a7-2bb2bee17719) of the OECD STI Outlook Country Profiles (OECD, 2014) for further discussion on indicators and sources.
Data provided by
OECD Science Technology and Industry Outlook 2014
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Import & extraction details
File as imported: OECD Science Technology and Industry Outlook 2014
From the dataset OECD Science Technology and Industry Outlook 2014, this data was extracted:
- Sheet: OECD.Stat export
- Provided: 4,393 data points
This data forms the table International Comparisons - Performance of national innovation systems in OECD countries 2014.